The research draws upon theoretical insights of law and development scholars who have questioned traditional meanings of environmental justice based simply on principles of fair treatment and equity in distribution of environmental risk. Our research examines one or more of various aspects of environmental justice, including but not limited to:
- Procedural justice: opportunities for participation in the political and legal processes that create and manage environmental policy, e.g., public interest litigation (PIL), community involvement in environmental impact assessment;
- Distributive justice: equity in the distribution of risks, benefits and costs of environmental decision making;
- Recognitional justice: recognition of the diversity of participants and experiences in affected communities, including non-human species and abiotic parts of the ecosphere; and
- Restorative justice: attempts made to mitigate or remediate adverse impacts on people and the environment, e.g., enforcement of licensing conditions, rehabilitation and resettlement policies.